The drone is a general term for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). whereas the entire system that allows a drone to function is an Unmanned Aerial System (UAS). The classification of the Northern Treaty Organization mentions that UAS, which weigh less than 2 kg, are called micro-drones, and those that do not exceed 25 kg are called mini drones.
Drone activity is accelerating all over the world. According to the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) projections, the fleet of small UAS to triple, from 1.1 million units in 2016 to 3.5 million vehicles in 2021.
Single Rotor Drones
Single rotor drones look exactly like tiny helicopters and can be gas or electric-powered. The single blade and ability to run on gas help its stability and fly for longer distances. These UAVs are usually used to transport heavier objects, including LIDAR systems, that can be used to survey land, research storms, and map erosion caused by global warming.
Multi-rotor drones are usually some of the smallest and lightest drones on the market. They have limited distance, speed, and height, but make the perfect flying vehicle for enthusiasts and aerial photographers. These drones can usually spend 20-30 minutes in the air carrying a lightweight payload, such as a camera.
Fixed Wing Drones
Fixed-wing drones look like normal airplanes, where the wings provide the lift instead of rotors- making them very efficient. These drones usually use fuel instead of electricity, allowing them to glide in the air for more than 16 hours. Since these drones are usually much larger, and because of their design, they need to take off and land on runways just as airplanes do. Fixed-wing UAVs are used by the military to carry out strikes, by scientists to carry large amounts of equipment, and even by nonprofits to deliver food and other goods to areas that are hard to reach.
HOW DRONES ARE CONTROLLED?
The drone has a Ground Control Station (GCS) which is the central control unit that allows a UAV to fly and a UAS to operate. These stations can be as large as a desk with multiple views to as small as a handheld controller or even an app.
The GCS can be user-controlled or operated via satellites with the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) like GPS and GLONASS drones can operate in both non-satellite and satellite modes, providing enhanced connectivity during operation
GNSS allows Return to Home safety technology to function on a drone and can be activated through the ground station’s remote controller. This allows pilots to be informed as to whether there are enough drone GNSS satellites available for the drone to be flown independently, the current location of the drone compared to the pilot, and the “home point” for the drone to return to. In addition to being controllable through the controller, Return to Home can also be automatically activated once the battery is low or when a loss of contact between the drone and the controller occurs.
Ground Control Station features
GCS, control also payload sensors, Drones, UAVs specifically, come in a variety of sizes and are capable of carrying payloads of equally variable-sized payloads. From life-saving medication to packages and more, drones provide an efficient method of delivery but must be built to handle the job at hand. Many drones are capable of rapid flight across oceans while others may be restricted to just a few thousand feet. Some drones may be capable of carrying hundreds of pounds while others can only manage under ten. Operators must choose the right drone to help them complete the job at hand. And finally, GCS tethers the data link system. Data Links act as the transmission center that allows the drone to communicate with the ground operator while in flight. Typically utilizing radio frequency technology to communicate, the data link provides the operator with crucial data like remaining flight time, distance from the operator, distance from the target, airspeed altitude, and more. UAV control at 2.4 GHz for control and 5 GHz for video will provide the operator with approximately four miles of usability, while frequencies of 900 MHz for flight control and 1.3 GHz for video control can provide more than 20 miles of usability — adding to the list of reasons why pilots must use the right UAS for the task they mean to achieve.